What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different functionalities?

As mentioned, closed-loop stepper control with feedback for step-loss compensation uses algorithms to detect lost steps. The many different compensation algorithms used in industry have advantages and disadvantages:

Nema 23 Closed-loop Geared Stepper L=56mm Gear Raio 15:1 Encoder 1000CPR

These types of algorithms can be used in many point-to-point motion applications but are less useful for maintaining a profiled trajectory under varying load.
This type of control suffers from the main weakness of traditional stepper motor control: Once pullout torque is exceeded, torque delivered to the load plummets to zero and a recovery algorithm must fix the problem.

This control also suffers from the traditional problem of stepperresonance excitation. Algorithms abound to reduce the effects of stepper resonance but none completely eliminate the issue.Just like a traditional open-loop stepper, the motor can run hot because the control applies full current to the motor whenever it’s in motion.

Closed Loop Stepper Driver 0~8.2A 24~80VDC for Nema 34 Stepper Motor

Closed-loop stepper driver with load position control is similar to step-loss compensation as this drive scheme uses feedback and compensation algorithms to detect and address lost steps. This is a position-control scheme and dynamically controls and updates the output position when an error is present between commanded position and actual position. These compensation algorithms have advantages and disadvantages:

The algorithms are especially useful when a profiled trajectory must be maintained under varying load.
This type of control still suffers from the main weakness of traditional stepper motor control (that once pullout torque is exceeded the torque delivered to the load plummets).

This type of control also suffers from the stepperresonance problem.
Just like a traditional open-loop stepper, the motor can run hot because the control applies full current to the motor whenever it’s in motion.

It’s usually easy to determine when a drive implements closed-loop stepper servo control because the drive can control torque. Case in point: The ElectroCraft PRO Series drives run steppers like high-pole-count brushless motors, via closed-loop stepper servo control. The ability to control torque has advantages and disadvantages:

A wider variety of applications can use this type of control. In addition to point-to-point motion, the drive can execute profiled motion and coordinate axes.

Machine builders can use the motor’s full rated torque because this algorithm doesn’t experience pullout issues; full torque is maintained up to the maximum limit.
The drive can use the motor’s full torque, but the system delivers only as much torque as is required at any point in time. This reduces motor heating associated with traditional stepper drives and other closed-loop controls.This control method completely eliminates the stepper resonance issue because the motor is no longer operated as a stepper.The ability to control motor current is a more complex control scheme and does not come free. Generally these types of systems are more expensive than step-loss compensation systems.

How to choose NEMA 23 or NEMA 34 stepper motors?

The decision between NEMA 23 and NEMA 34 motors is primarily a decision about productivity — NEMA 34 motors can remove material at a higher rate using higher feed rates and deeper cut depths.

The style of motor you choose is not the determining factor in what materials can be cut — this is far more a function of the mechanical stiffness of the machine doing the cutting, as well as proper speeds, feeds and tooling. With our machine kits, either of our motor packages can cut hardwood, plastic, and non-ferrous materials such as aluminum.

Motors serve to accelerate and decelerate components of the machine (such as the gantry or z axis), as well as to push the cutting bit through material. NEMA 34 motors can take deeper passes through material and improve cutting speeds, especially on larger machines.

Generally, if you are using a machine for regular production work, higher power NEMA 34 motors will provide a fast return on investment. However, if you are primarily doing small production runs or prototyping work, NEMA 23 motors will likely be sufficient.